The innermost layer of the choroid, serving as a barrier to large molecules and cells.
Extracellular deposits composed of glycoproteins and lipids which accumulate in the macular region of the eye in AMD patients. These can be seen during routine eye examinations.
A region near the centre of the retina with a high density of photoreceptors responsible for high acuity vision.
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the Bruch’s membrane of the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells. It functions both as a selective barrier and a nutrient source for the overlying photoreceptor layer, thereby playing a key role in its maintenance.
Specialised light-sensitive cells consisting of rods and cones. The rods are most sensitive to light and dark changes, shape and movement and contain only one type of light-sensitive pigment. Cones are responsible for colour and high acuity vision.
The inner layer of the eye that detects light entering the front of the eye.
The vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissue, and lying between the retina and the sclera. The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina.
Age-related Macular Degeneration
A painless eye condition that leads to the gradual loss of central vision. It becomes increasingly blurred leading to difficulty reading; colours appear less vibrant and affected individuals have difficulty recognising people's faces.
The primary clinical characteristic of late-stage AMD characterised by the loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to degeneration of the nearby photoreceptors.
The physiological process through which new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels mainly characterised by the protrusion and outgrowth of capillary buds and sprouts from pre-existing blood vessels.
The natural formation of new blood vessels usually in the form of functional microvascular networks, capable of perfusion by red blood cells, that form to serve as collateral circulation in response to local poor perfusion or ischemia.
The Complement System
Part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. It is part of the innate immune system which is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime. It can be recruited and brought into action by the adaptive immune system.
The introduction of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.